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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 33-36

Neuroendocrine tumor of larynx: A review of literature


1 Department of Radiation Oncology, MNJIO and RCC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Pathology, MNJIO and RCC, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. L Pavan Kumar
Department of Radiation Oncology, MNJIO and RCC, Hyderabad - 500 082, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2454-6798.165092

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Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx are rare but are the most common nonsquamous tumors of this organ. There are 4 different types of laryngeal neuroendocrine tumors composed of paraganglioma, typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid tumor, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Carcinoids and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are epithelial neoplasms, whereas paragangliomas are of neural origin. Diagnosis is based primarily on light microscopy and confirmed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Precise diagnosis is essential because the natural history, treatment, and prognosis vary widely for the different neoplastic categories. Typical carcinoids are very rare and are treated by wide local excision, usually partial laryngectomy, without elective neck dissection. Atypical carcinoid tumors are more common and more aggressive. They are treated by partial or total laryngectomy with elective or therapeutic neck dissection. Adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy may be of benefit in some cases. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are highly aggressive and should be considered disseminated at initial diagnosis. The treatment is by irradiation and chemotherapy as surgery has proven to be of a little benefit. Paragangliomas are treated by local excision or partial laryngectomy.


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